Have been doing/since
한국 연습 <ㄴ지 되다/지나다>
When you want to say sentences to show what you have been doing over a period of time, or to say that you have been doing something since a certain period of time, then this is your construction!
How to form this construction:
Take the verb stem, take away 다 and add:
For vowels – ㄴ지…되다/지나다
For consonants – 은지…되다/지나다
Some example verbs
하다 > 한지 have been doing
보다 > 본지 have been watching
배우다 > 배운지 have been learning
먹다 > 먹은지 have been eating
넣다 > 넣은지 have been putting
Some example sentences
저는 한국어를 배운지 오년 됐어요 = I have been learning Korean for 5 years
마리아가 피아노를 연습을 한지 사년 됐어요 = Maria has been practicing piano for 4 years
형이 운전 한지 10년 지났어요 = Older brother has been driving for over 10 years
누나가 이가게에 일 한지 6달 지났어요 = Older sister has been working in this shop for over 6 months
제 진구가 한국어 수업우로 간지 3주 됐어요 = My friend has been going to Korean class for 3 weeks
그 사람이 이 책을 읽은지 삼일 됐어요 = She has been reading this book for 3 days
저는 저 대학교에서 다닌지 이년 지났어요 = I have been attending/going to that University for over 2 years
Points of interest
Notice how I have translated 지나다 as ‘over’. This is when the time is surplus and not exact which is when you should use 되다.
Use 얼마나 to form a question asking how long something has been going on for:
중국어를 배운지 얼마나 됐어요? – How long have you been learning Chinese / Since when have you been learning Chinese?
중국어를 배운지 십년 됐어요 – I have been learning Chinese for 10 years / Since 10 years
Sometimes it seems more correct to translate it as ‘since’
한국에 일하러 온지 일년 됐어요 = It has been one year since I came to Korea to work
미국우로 공부하러 간지 6달 지났어요 = It has been 6 months since (he) went to America to study
마리오가 비올라를 배운지 작녁 됐어요 = Mario has been learning (to play) the viola since last year
You can’t use it for things in a short time reference that you are currently doing.
🙂 Learning the piano is still ongoing, however you haven’t been physically sat at the piano for 3 years solid so that’s fine.
😦 Eating food for 10 minutes isn’t possible as it’s still on going right as you speak.
😦 이 음식을 먹은지 20분 댔어요 = This isn’t possible!
🙂 이 음식을 20분 동안 먹고 있어요 = I have been eating this food for 20 mins.
Therefore use the construction: Subject + Object + time + 동안 + verb without 다 ending + ~고 있어요
e.g. 디나가 그 샌드위치를 삼십분 동안 먹고 있어요 = Dina has been eating that sandwich for 30mins.
저는 이 비디오 개임을 3시간 동안 하고 있어요 – I have been playing this video game for 3 hours (and I’m still playing right now)
아빠가 이 국이 반시간 동안 먹고 있어요 – Dad has been eating this soup for half an hour (and is still eating it right now)
안겔라가 그 그림을 이시간 동안 그리고 있어요 – Angela has been drawing this picture for 2 hours (and still hasn’t finished)
Did you understand this?