Korean Lesson 31: Modifiers / Present Modifier (Part 2 of 5)

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여보세요!  여기 한국어 31과입니다.

In this second section we will look at the present form of modifiers.

As with the past modifiers, start by taking the -ta/da off the inifinitive.

Møkta 먹다 > møk 먹

Then add the ending -nûn 는

This makes the form møngnûn 먹는

Let’s make a few more forms, then we’ll discuss pronunciation rules and practical usage.

chada – to sleep > chanûn  자는

ilkda – to read > ilnûn (‘g’ is silent) 읽는

salta – to live > sanûn (‘l’ disappears) 사는

anjta – to sit > annûn (‘j’ is silent) 앉는

hada – to do > hanûn 하는

itta – to be > innûn (‘s’ is silent) 있는

opta – to not be > omnûn (‘p’ turns to ‘m’ and ‘s’ is silent) 없는

As you can see, there are lots of irregular spellings / pronunciations with this modifier as ‘n’ causes a lot of issues.  We have learned lots of spelling rules before but one really important one is that ‘n’ usually cancels out the preceding consonant.

j/t/s/p/l + n = nn

ch’atta (written in Korean as ‘ch’ajta’) > channûn 찾는

boda – to see > bonûn  보는 (Vowels don’t have any weird changes)

ipta – to wear > imnûn  입는

utta – to laugh (written usta) > unnûn  웃는

Let’s look at where we’d use these forms.

Relative clauses:

jamba-rûl imnûn namja – the boy wearing the jumper (the boy who wears the jumper) 잠바를 입는 남자

norae-rûl norae hanûn yøja – the girl singing / who is singing the song 노래를 노래하는 여자

t’ellebijøn-ûl bonûn ch’ingu – (my) friend who watches TV 털레비전을 보는 친구

Now let’s make these into bigger sentences!

ch’øngbaji-rûl imnûn yøja che nuna-yeyo – The girl who wears jeans is my big sister                                      청바지를 입는 여자 재 누나예요.

p’aeksûgi-rûl ssønûn sonyøn towa chuseyo! – Please help the young boy using the fax machine                       팩스기를 써는 소연 도와주세요!

More on these modifiers soon!

감사합니다!  안녕히 가세요!

Thanks again!  Bye!

One response to “Korean Lesson 31: Modifiers / Present Modifier (Part 2 of 5)

  1. Thank you so much for the lesson. I was very confused by the 오신 in this sentence:한국에 오신 목적이 뭐예요?”until I read your explanation. I am a self-learner , so I really appreciate your generous help. I am amazed at your language ability. Thank you again, I will use your materials from now on, I speak Chinese, Japanese, English and can read Spanish. Leiko


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