In this lesson we are going to learn about the pronouns some…, any… and no-… which will help us build longer, more complicated sentences in Korean and also improve our fluency.
In brief there are 3 types of prefix in English for indefinite pronouns: some/any/no-. In Korean it is similar but they are all suffixes (they come after the word).
They are: -n ga/-na/-do -ㄴ 가 / 나 / 도
Let’s look at them one by one in depth then compare at the end.
We must use the question words and add -n ga: -ㄴ 가
mwo = what / mwon ga = something 뭔가 (Long version: muøshin ga 무엇인가)
ønje = when / ønjen ga = sometime/someday 언젠가
ødi = where / ødin ga-e = (to) somewhere 어딘가에
nugu = who / nugun ga = someone 누군가
e.g. nugun ga-rûl pogo ship’øyo – I want to see someone / 누군가를 보고 싶어요
ødinga-e ga kal kka haeyo – I am thinking of going somewhere (-l kka hada – to think about doing something)
어딘가에 갈 까 해요
naeil mwøn ga hal køeyo – I will do something tomorrow 내일 뭔가 할 거에요
Use ‘amu’ + ‘na’ 나
amuna – anyone 아무나
amugona – anything (go(t) = thing) 아무거나
amudena – anywhere (te = place) 아무데나
e.g. amuna kago ship’ø hae haeyo? – Does anyone want to go? 아무나 가고 싶어 해 해요?
amugona-ga issøyo? – Do you have anything? 아무거나 있어요?
amudena kal køeyo – I will go anywhere 아무데나 갈 거에요
Finally, to say the negative, use the ones for ‘any’ and replace the -na with -do: 도
amudo – no-one 아무도
amugotdo – nothing (got/kot = thing) 아무것도
amudedo – no-where (te/de = place) 아무데도
e.g. amudo-ga øpsøyo? – Is anyone there? (When returning home to an empty house) 아무도가 없어요?
amukotdo an mokgo ship’ø haessøyo – She didn’t want anything to eat 아무것도 안 먹고 싶어 했어요
amudedo-e an kassøyo – We didn’t go anywhere 아무데도 안 갔어요
NB In English we shouldn’t ever have a double negative. i.e. I am not going no-where.
We say ‘I am not going anywhere’ or ‘I am going nowhere’. This has led to difficulties for me to translate the sentences above. Basically, if the meaning is positive: use the -na words. If it is negative: use the -do words.
I am going no-where = amudedo an kassøyo / 아무데도 안 갔어요
I am not going anywhere = amudedo an kassøyo / 아무데도 안 갔어요
BUT I will go anywhere = amudena kal køeyo / 아무데나 갈 거에요
I have nothing = amugotdo-ga øpsøyo / 아무것도가 없어요
I don’t have anything = amugotdo-ga øpsøyo / 아무것도가 없어요
BUT I will have anything = amugona-ga issûl køeyo 아무거나가 있을 거에요
I know no-one here = yøgi amudo møllayo / 여기 아무도 멀라요
I don’t know anyone here = yøgi amudo møllayo / 여기 아무도 멀라요
BUT I will chat to anyone at the party = p’at’i-esø amuna-hante iyagi hal køeyo / 파티에서 아무나한데 이야기 할 거에요
I hope those examples have helped to clear that difficult point up. In closing:
Some = -n ga / -ㄴ 가
Any (+) = -na / 나
No…/Any (-) = -do / 도
mwon ga-rûl sa-go ship’øyo – I want to buy something / 뭔가를 사고 싶어요
amugona-rûl sal køeyo – I will buy anything / 아무거나 살 거에요
amugotdo-rûl an sassøyo – I bought nothing / I didn’t buy anything / 아무것도를 안 샀어요
Leave a comment or a sentence of your own for me to check!
Annyøngi kaseyo! 안녕히 가세요!